Archive for Fred Zinnemann


Posted in FILM with tags , , , on October 29, 2011 by dcairns

Here’s Fred Zinnemann ~

During the years of pre-production on MAN’s FATE, my contract had never been quite ready; a few ‘ifs’ and ‘buts’ had always to be considered. [...] We were now rehearsing with Liv Ullman, David Niven, Peter Finch and other brilliant actors, in sets dressed and ready to start shooting the following week.

During those three years, a number of expensive MGM pictures had gone ove rbudget and failed at the box office. A new management had taken over; i received warning that several projects might be cancelled. This was soon followed by a legal cable stating that production of MAN’S FATE had been cancelled and the accounts closed; it also meant that henceforth no salaries would be paid. I soon found that no one in the unit wanted to stop rehearsing, salary of no salary; the excitement generated by the story was too strong. We worked for three more days until the script was fully rehearsed, scene by scene. Then, after the usual farewell party as if on the set of a real picture, everybody went home. The next day I went to the front office to see what was going to happen.

The information I received was that  MGM had spent more than four million dollars in pre-production. This would be written off; but there were still some bills outstanding. The studio’s accounts were now closed; my contract was not signed, therefore I had no contract, meaning that it was I who would have to pay those bills.

‘How much?’ I asked, somewhat stunned.

‘A million seven hundred.’

I couldn’t believe my ears. ‘How do you expect me to pay?’

‘It isn’t too difficult.’ The man gave me an encouraging smile. ‘All you have to do is go bankrupt and appoint us as the receivers, then we can make good deals with the creditors.’

‘That’s dishonorable,’ I said.

The man was amazed. ‘This has nothing to do with honor, this is business!’

I can’t figure why MGM thought the director of HIGH NOON and A MAN FOR ALL SEASONS would be the type to go for this deal, but they were wrong: Fred sued the bastards, and won, after four years. That didn’t help the creditors too much, alas. MGM didn’t care about costume supply houses and such like taking a financial hit because they were winding up their UK operations anyway. Their good name didn’t matter to them since they weren’t going to be around, and a successful UK film industry was the last thing they wanted since they wouldn’t be part of it so it would be competition.

MGM’s Borehamwood studios, the best in England were sold — the first thing they did was rip out the boilers so the buildings couldn’t be used as studios — they were scuppering the ship as they pulled out of the UK.

High Noon at Marienbad

Posted in FILM with tags , , , , on October 26, 2011 by dcairns

I’m not trying to be boastful or anything, but when I first got the idea for the above cut-and-paste composograph, I got very excited. And then for a while it was apain in the neck, because I don’t have Photoshop and other equivalent tools just don’t compare. But then, when the end was in sight, I got this incredible SUGAR RUSH. So I think it’s good.

If I come up with enough of these, maybe I can publish a set of copyright-violating postcards.

Pull up a chair

Posted in FILM with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on October 21, 2011 by dcairns

The bit in HIGH NOON that always impresses me the most is outlaw Frank Miller’s empty chair.

Of course, the real-time approach to story is fascinating and very novel, and leads directly to the omnipresent clock shots, each more ominous than the last. Dimitri Tiomkin’s ballad started a (somewhat regrettable) trend, but still sounds fresh, with its unusual frog-burp rhythm. The cinematography, pasting bleached-out skies behind flat-lit action, influenced by Mathew Brady’s period photos, violated the traditional Hollywood aesthetic and opened up new possibilities. Cooper’s age works to the film’s advantage, Lon Chaney Jnr gets one of his rare decent roles, Grace Kelly is radiant in her second role (a disciple of Flaherty, Zinnemann realized he could use her inexperience to illuminate the character).

But I’m obsessed with that chair.

First time out, the chair is mentioned — “That’s the chair Frank Miller sat in when he was sentenced!” Second time, during the final ticking-clock montage which revisits every character we’ve met as they await the stroke of noon, Zinnemann tracks in on the empty chair. This isn’t exploring space, roving POV, following movement or storytelling, so it must be the fifth kind of camera movement motivation: psychological. This is where we track in on a character as they think deep thoughts or feel a surge of emotion, and the movement makes us sense the thought/emotion building within them. The difference here is, the man who sat in the chair and felt the emotion did it months before the movie began. He’s not there anymore. But, like the spectres in THE SHINING, he’s left a trace of himself, and that’s what Zinnemann is filming. He’s tracking backwards in time, like Ophuls or Tarkovsky or Sokhurov, the only difference being that the temporal movement doesn’t reveal itself visually, only by mental impression.

Zinnemann’s fellow Viennese, Von Sternberg, wrote of his desire to photograph an idea — Zinnemann, it seems to me, has done this. Although I think the shot was probably a huge influence on Spielberg, who likes tracking in on objects to imbue them with significance and make us consider their narrative import, I think F.Z.’s shot goes markedly deeper, creating a sense of brooding lust for vengeance out of nothing more than empty air and a piece of furniture designed to receive the buttocks.

I haven’t tried this myself, but I suspect that if you watch this scene wearing the polarising glasses used to make the phantoms visible in William Castle’s 13 GHOSTS, you would get surprising results.

Film criticism, which used to see Peckinpah and Leone as the Men who Killed the Western (with realism, parodic exaggeration, and the destruction of moral certainties), now seems to have turned the clock back to put the blame on HIGH NOON and the psychological western. Suddenly there was liberal angst in the West, neurosis and concern about whether people are truly good, and that is seen as the first nail in the coffin of a genre built on certain shared assumptions. Maybe that’s why Hawks reacted so badly — he sensed the writing was on the wall. In many ways, HIGH NOON does seem to prefigure the decline of the genre — we have Gary Cooper looking old, the small community is no longer a source of final virtue and courage, and something strange and disturbing has happened to the style…

Leone quoted shots from HIGH NOON throughout his career, as Sir Christopher Professor Frayling would tell you, as well as borrowing Lee Van Cleef, one of the villain’s henchmen (as Peckinpah borrowed Katy Jurado). The musical fob watch in FOR A FEW DOLLARS MORE is just an excuse to re-stage the above musical build-up three times in one movie. And of course ONCE UPON A TIME IN THE WEST opens with a ten-minute compression of Zinnemann’s whole show. If Leone had fulfilled his dream of casting Eastwood, Wallach and Van Cleef as the three killers waiting for the train, Van Cleef’s appearance would have been a double joke.

To Leone, HIGH NOON seems to have been just a good western to swipe from, like YELLOW SKY (watch the ending of that one and HIGH NOON with the opening of THE GOOD THE BAD AND THE UGLY!), not some departure from the norm. But Zinnemann is using the visual language of film noir — sweaty, intense close-ups, looming into a wide lens, porous, scowling, faces crowded together — in a western. If the climax of ACT OF VIOLENCE (face-off, with long walk, at a railway station) resembles a western duel in negative — which it does, because I just said so — then HIGH NOON is a film noir in negative, the sky a bleached-out Moby Dick white. And as we know from THE SHINING, some things are scarier in the bright light.

So what this ultimately means is that HIGH NOON is the source for a good 75% of Leone’s overall visual approach… so maybe Zinnemann DID kill the western, or at least supply the weapon that fired the shot.


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